West Harbour is located at Jätkäsaari, where construction of Helsinki’s new maritime district is progressing at full speed. Jätkäsaari is gradually being transformed into a district offering residential areas, workplaces and services. The shore area of Jätkäsaari was previously used for industrial and harbour purposes.
The Port of Helsinki is developing West Harbour and building a new terminal area at the tip of Jätkäsaari, where the new West Terminal 2 is due for completion in spring 2017. The new passenger pavilion will, together with the old West Terminal 1, provide a smooth travel experience for the millions of passengers travelling between Helsinki and Tallinn each year. The route across the sea between the cities is one of the busiest in the world, and its passenger numbers are growing constantly.
Figure 1. West harbour maps in 2016 and 2017.
SSAB has delivered steel piles for the quay structures in Ferry berth LJ6. Main contractor of the project was Suomen Vesityö Oy and the designer has been FCG Oy. Piling work has been done by Kantolan Paalutus Oy. Quay structures consist of sheet pile wall which is supported by steel piles. Larssen 605K sheet piles are 15 - 16 meter long and include protective painting in the upper part with length 5,0 m. There are in total 52 RR450/12.5 piles. Steel grade is S355J2H. Pipe piles are made of two parts. Lower parts of piles are 18-19 meters long and upper parts are 12 meters long. Upper parts are protected with HDPE coating. Piles are equipped with rock shoes.
Figure 2. Installation of sheet piles.
Construction work started with pulling up the sheet piles of the existing quay structure. The old erosion plate (thickness 0.5 m, width 10.0 m) in the bottom was demolished without problems. After that new sheet piles were installed, RR450 pipe piles were pile was driven in every third of the sheet pile channels. When all sheet piles and RR450 piles were installed, they were cut from the designed level. After that the capping beam could be cast. The work was completed successfully in spite of very small workspace and existing ship and ferry traffic.
Figure 3. RR piles supporting sheet pile wall in ferry berth LJ6.
Figure 4. All sheet piles and RR450 piles installed and structure is ready for capping beam casting.
Figure 5. All sheet piles and RR450 piles installed.
Piles were delivered with HDPE (High Density Polyethene) coating to protect the piles against corrosion and mechanical stress caused by ice conditions and propeller slipstream. The 3-layer coating consists of epoxy, adhesion and polyethylene, layers. HDPE coating is done at SSAB’s Oulainen works. Piles (L= 10-18 m) are coated over the full length at the same time. Coating is removed from the end of the pile to enable welding of the pile.
In this project it was proven again that HDPE coating stands very well handling and installation of piles without damages to the coating surface. HDPE coated piles were used the first time in the renovation of West harbor’s quay structures already in 2007. The experience during the ten years has been very good.
Figure 6. HDPE coated piles waiting for transportation at SSAB’s Oulainen works.
Renovation of the quay structures in Ferry berth LJ6 will continue during summer 2017. Quay structure consisting of sheet pile wall supported by steel piles as well as the installation principle will remain the same .
SSAB has also large variety of hollow sections, including several high strength grades. To support the frame designers a new handbook, “SSAB Domex Tube Structural Hollow Sections EN 1993 –Handbook” and a design software SSAB FrameCalc have been recently published.
SSAB Domex Tube handbook provides design guidance for structures manufactured of SSAB hollow sections, it is directed for designers and students in the field of steel construction. It gives practical and theoretical design instructions for building construction but also machine construction related issues are stressed. It can be utilized in very demanding designs but also in education as a textbook. It includes various calculation examples which can be utilized directly for example in weld joint, fire and fatigue designs.
SSAB Domex Tube handbook is available as a printed book and pdf-format. SSAB’s technical support organizes technical seminars and presentations about the handbook and supplies printed books. Download the book here: SSAB-Domex-Tube-Structural-Hollow-Sections-EN-1993-Handbook.
Figure 1. SSAB Domex Tube Structural Hollow Sections EN 1993 –Handbook is now available.
SSAB has developed a unique tool for its customers and designers for designing roof trusses with structural hollow sections. With it it is possible to optimize the truss with just few key parameters; geometry, loads and steel grades. It can optimize the truss to either minimize the mass or manufacturing costs. With FrameCalc it is easy to compare different steel grades in trusses and see the benefits of high strength steels yourself. The design is done according to Eurocode 3.
FrameCalc will shorten the design phase and works as an excellent tool in making quotations. SSAB developes it constantly, so if you are willing to participate as a test user please contact Jussi Minkkinen: email@example.com, Phone +358 50 314 3322.
Technical University of Braunschweig organizes a Pfahl-Symposium, Pile Conference, every second year. This year also SSAB participated this event on 23rd and 24th of February.
Antti Perälä, Technology Manager of SSAB Tubular products, Infra, wrote a paper and also held a presentation at the conference. Topic of the paper was RD pile wall – A retaining wall of drilled steel pipe piles. Due to drilling as an installation method, RD pile wall can be used in demanding soil conditions where installation of traditional retaining wall structures is very difficult or even impossible.
Figure 1. Antti Perälä keeping a presentation of RD pile wall
Pfahl-Symposium 2017 gathered approximately 350 professionals from Continental Europe, mainly from Germany and the Netherlands. SSAB’s piling products, especially RD pile wall and micropiles, were found interesting due to some unique features. SSAB’s micropile products have been used successfully for over 30 years in the Nordic countries. They suit very well also to the soil conditions in Central Europe.
Figure 2. Piet van Breukelen presenting SSAB’s products at the stand.
More information from: Business Area Manager Piet van Breukelen Phone: +31 6 10399803 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
During the coming years, Ranta-Tampella is one of the largest construction areas in Tampere. The area will be constructed in many phases at Tampella lakeside area as a downtown extension by the shore of Näsijärvi lake. Over 2,000 new apartments will be constructed to the area of approximately 16.5 hectares.
Ranta-Tampella area development was allowed by construction of Rantatunneli tunnel, a 2.3 kilometre road tunnel – the longest in Finland. The tunnel freed up a large swath of central Tampere’s northern areas for the use of residents. Rock material generated during the tunnel excavation has been used to fill in the waterfront for the park being created in the Ranta-Tampella district.
Ranta-Tampella area development project has many players and the total value of the project is approximately EUR 900 million. YIT is the biggest constructor at the area and it has building permit for floor area of 80,000 square metres for its plots. The preconstruction of the area was started in the summer 2014 and the whole area is expected to be completed by 2030.
Figure 1. Over 2,000 new apartments will be constructed to Ranta-Tampella, the area of approximately 16.5 hectares.
YIT started the construction of Ranta-Tampella area project in November 2016. The first phase to be constructed is Asunto Oy Tampereen Näsinkeula apartment building. Ranta-Tampella has aroused strong interest and Näsinkeula apartments were reserved in an exceptionally short time when the advance publicity started in the beginning of September. The central location close the city centre and by the Näsijärvi lake creates a good basis for a unique residential area.
Figure 2. Building work has started from apartment buildings Näsinkeula and Kanavanvahti and two parking facilities.
Suomen Teräspaalutus Oy has been responsible for piling Asunto Oy Tampereen Näsinkeula apartment building, Asunto Oy Tampereen Kanavanvahti apartment building and two parking facilities. Because of demand soil conditions and embankment made by blasted rock used pile type was drilled piles. Work included in total 623 pieces of RD piles (411 tons) and all piles were S550J2H steel grade. Thanks to high-strength steel, less piles could be used. Piling work started in October 2016 for Tampereen Näsinkeula where RDs220/12.5 piles were used. Piling for Tampereen Kanavanvahti started in January 2017. RDs170/12.5 and RDs140/10 piles were used. Piling for the parking facility of Keulakortteli, block of houses where Näsinkeula belongs to, was done in the turn of the year using RDs220/12.5 and RRs270/12.5 piles. Piling for the parking facility of Kanavakortteli, block of houses where Kanavanvahti belongs to, was done in February using RDs170/12.5 piles.
Figure 3. Piling for Asunto Oy Tampereen Kanavanvahti apartment building started in January 2017.
Soil conditions in Ranta-Tampella area consist mainly of different fill layers. Materials used in these fills vary a lot. Old fill layers have been mainly removed to the water level of Näsijärvi lake. New layers consist of boulders and crushed bedrock from excavation of Rantatunneli. Pile lengths in these first two projects varied from 4 m to 15 m.
Figure 4. Suomen Teräspaalutus Oy piling in Ranta-Tampella.
YIT’s third apartment building, called Ykköspurje, will be built earliest during summer 2017. Construction work is dependent on the market demand for the apartments.
Apart from YIT, also other construction companies are involved in Ranta-Tampella. One of them is PEAB, who aims to start the construction work during summer 2017. Their block includes five apartment buildings.
Figure 5. Construction work on going in Ranta-Tampella in February 2016.
A total of 300 foundation construction experts gathered together for SSAB’s Steel Pile Day held in Helsinki on January 19, 2017. Contractors, designers, authorities and students who participated in the event were offered an introduction to SSAB’s pile products. The event also showcased projects in which the company’s RR and RD piles have been used to construct dock structures and building foundations.
Figure 1. A total of 300 foundation construction experts gathered together for SSAB’s Steel Pile Day held in Helsinki on January 19, 2017.
Kari Väliaho, General Manager, Tubular Products opened the tenth ever foundation construction event. Developed in Finland, RR and RD piles have been in use for three decades now. Driven steel piles were used for the first time in the construction of the dock in Oulu’s Oritkari in Finland, and the expansion of Imatra’s cardboard factory in 1987 represents the first-ever micropile application. The majority of the piles produced by SSAB are exported.
‘SSAB has full control over its production and processing chain. All our steel pile products are manufactured at our own factories using steel produced in Raahe. This allows us to control the entire process, offer reliable deliveries and ensure that our piles meet the quality and product requirements. Our products are delivered to customers cost-efficiently by road from the factories or from our subcontractors’ premises,’ explains Marko Maukonen, Supply Chain Manager, Infra.
Project Manager Reino Heikinheimo from Ramboll Finland Oy introduced Turku University Hospital’s T3 project in which HDPE RD® piles were used for the foundation. With the new building built on top of a railway and motorway, the project was extremely challenging.
Roger Starck from the Swedish company BESAB AB talked about projects carried out by the company where SSAB’s RR and RD piles had been used to reinforce the foundations of old or historical buildings.
Construction Manager Pasi Mäkinen from Skanska Infra Oy presented the company’s K6 office building project. The 8-storey building, which has 3 additional floors underground, is located in a densely built area in Sörnäinen, Helsinki.
Piet van Breukelen from SSAB introduced an RD pile wall project carried out at Peterhead Port in Scotland, which represents our most extensive pile wall project outside the Nordic countries to date.
YIT-Rakennus Oy’s construction manager Juha Vunneli offered an update on the progress of the PasilaTripla project in Pasila, Helsinki. The project involves the construction of a shopping centre Tripla, high-rise buildings and a new residential area.
In his presentation, Antti Perälä Technology Manager, Infra covered the Hospital Nova project in Central Finland and the Kiiruu School project in Somero, in which the steel grade of RR and RD piles was upgraded to S550J2H, which resulted in considerable savings.
Figure 2. In addition to the presentations, the event included an exhibition of SSAB’s products
SSAB’s range of driven micropiles has been complemented with new driven pile elements made of high-strength steel (S550J2H), such as the RRs220/10 and RRs220/12.5 piles.
Steel Pile Day also showcased the company’s expandable rock bolts (ERBs), suitable for reinforcing road tunnels and mines. SSAB has three decades of experience in manufacturing ERBs at its factory in Virsbo, Sweden.
SSAB’s dimensioning program RRPileCalc 188.8.131.52 was updated in January while the PileWallCalc 2.01.0 program now also includes the Swedish and Norwegian standards.
SSAB has also launched a new dimensioning program, FrameCalc, which covers SSAB’s standard dimensions and steel grades from S355 to S700. The solution is designed for the automated design of steel trusses.
In addition, Tibnor’s product range was introduced to infrastructure builders at the event, including sheet piles and beams required in the construction of sheet pile walls.
‘We have used RD piles and RD pile walls in applications such as foundations for industrial buildings. I was particularly interested to hear the presentations by contractors and to learn more about their experiences of these products,’ says SRV Infra Oy’s construction manager Janne Viitasalo, who participates in the Steel Pile Day almost every year.
‘Bringing together all the designers and contractors, this annual event offers an opportunity to meet face-to-face with collaboration partners you usually communicate with by phone or email,’ he adds.
Figure 3. Janne Viitasalo, SRV Infra Oy
Miia Paatsema, a project manager at the City of Helsinki Geotechnical Department, is another regular at the Steel Pile Day.
‘I was particularly interested in the Scottish port case, which provided me with new ideas on how to proceed with the design of our project. We could utilise the guide frame that was used in the installation of the pile wall in the port project,’ says Miia Paatsema.
Figure 4. Miia Paatsema, the City of Helsinki, Geotechnical Department
Construction manager Sami Kari from Lemminkäinen Infra Oy is also a familiar face at the annual event.
‘We have used SSAB’s piles in our residential building projects. At the Finnoo station of the West Metro line, we deployed RD pile walls, which are ideal for challenging applications,’ Sami Kari explains.
‘I particularly looked forward to hearing the presentations on other work sites as it’s always interesting to learn how other companies carry out these projects,’ he continues.
Figure 5. Sami Kari, Lemminkäinen Infra Oy
Civil engineering company Arcus Oy’s branch manager Jaakko Heikkilä regards the Steel Pile Day as an excellent opportunity to update his knowledge of foundation construction products supplied by SSAB.
In the design of his infrastructure projects, such as construction of bridges, he has used large-diameter RR and RD piles.
‘The use of drilled piles has increased as they provide higher load bearing capacity particularly in bridge applications. At the installation stage, the noise and vibration levels are lower with drilled piles than with driven piles,’ Jaakko Heikkilä says.
Figure 6. Jaakko Heikkilä, Civil engineering company Arcus Oy
Do you need prompt deliveries of materials and processed parts? Tibnor works closely with SSAB Infra in the foundation customer segment. Whereas SSAB Infra delivers steel pile products straight from the mill, Tibnor can deliver the additional steel materials needed in foundation construction promptly from stock or ready-processed.
“When they contact SSAB Group, foundation construction customers can be sure of reliable full service for steel material deliveries ranging from SSAB’s steel pile products to a wide selection of other steel materials available from Tibnor,” says Raimo Räsänen, who is responsible for the foundation customer segment in Tibnor.
“Tibnor have partnered SSAB Infra in many foundation construction projects, where we have delivered different kinds of steel materials to the same customers as SSAB Infra. By far the largest case is YIT’s Tripla complex in Pasila, Helsinki. Tibnor delivered hundreds of tonnes of various HEB beams to anchor the RD pile wall that SSAB had delivered. Now Tibnor is supplying the cut-to-length plate parts to seal the steel pile wall seams,” Räsänen continues.
Figure 1. The photo shows Oskari Sivula from SSAB Infra and Raimo Räsänen from Tibnor, who together work to offer a full service to our customers.
A subsidiary of SSAB, Tibnor has 1,100 employees across 7 countries and supplies steel and other metals to industry in the Nordics and Baltics. If you have any questions or require prompt deliveries of materials from stock, please don’t hesitate to phone or email Raimo Räsänen at +358 50 315 9635 or email@example.com.
First deliveries of RF/RM interlocked drilled piles have arrived at Peterhead Harbour in November. Drilled piles RD600/12.5 have been produced and interlock welding has taken place in Oulainen works, Finland. Complete delivery consists of 1 062 piles (3 000 t), approximately 10 500 square meters of RD pile wall. To guarantee fast start of the project, combined transportation was used. First piles were delivered in vessels from Raahe, close to Oulainen mill, to Hull harbour in east coast of UK and further transported in trucks to final destination in Peterhead. Rest of the piles, representing the majority of the total delivery, are delivered in vessels straight from Raahe harbour to Peterhead.
Installation of the RD® pile wall has been progressing as planned. Piling contractor is Quinn Piling, one of Ireland’s leading geotechnical experts. So far the installed end result is positive and exceeding expectations. Deliveries and installation will continue until next spring.
Figure 1. Installation of RD pile wall has been progressing as planned
In September, joint venture partnership between civil engineering contractor McLaughlin & Harvey and dredging contractor Boskalis Westminster was appointed by Peterhead Port Authority for Peterhead Scheme 2. The project entails the strengthening and deepening of the inner harbours, land reclamation with revetment, widening of the harbour entrance and demolition works. As well as creating deep water access to the inner harbours, realignment of key structures will improve access to the inner harbours to facilitate larger and deeper drafted vessels. While deepening the harbour, the dredged material will be used to create a 25 000 m2 reclamation area for future developments, while maximising existing resources and achieving environmental benefits for the scheme.
In order to allow the harbour floors to be dredged from -3.2m to -6.5m CD, the existing quay walls within the Harbour will be strengthened using RD® pile wall solution. During the early design phase of the project, SSAB’s technical experts gave guidance on design and installation principles of the solution. Thereafter RD® pile wall was tailored to suit the specific requirements in Peterhead as a result of close collaboration between McLaughlin & Harvey and Peterhead Port Authority’s designer, RPS Consulting Engineers.
“We chose the RD® pile wall solution because it greatly simplifies the pile installation sequence. The client’s original design required the use of rock bunds to install reinforced concrete bored piles in a Hard/Soft pile sequence to form the new quay wall. The RD® pile wall solution eliminated this rock bund and also means the piles can be installed in one step to create a continuous wall with only one piling rig”, says Stephen McAuley, Contract Manager at McLaughlin & Harvey.
Figure 2. Installation of RD® pile wall has started in November
The scheme is part of the overall redevelopment of the Port. It is largest development project in the history of the Port. Work has commenced in the middle of October 2016 and should be complete in April 2018. The Project will enhance Peterhead’s position as Europe’s premier fishing port.
Figure 3. Project will enhance Peterhead’s position as Europe’s premier fishing port
All SSAB’s piling products go through a comprehensive testing before they are approved and CE marked. New RRs220/12.5 pile size has been tested on site and in laboratory. Guidelines for testing methods and requirement levels are presented in EAD (European Assessment Document) for steel pipe piles. Additionally there are also some national requirements for performance levels, which need to be fulfilled.
Most important thing is to test how strong and rigid mechanical pile splices are. Tests for splices start with robustness test. For driven piles this means impact blow tests on site. After impact blow tests the test piles are taken to laboratory for bending, tension and compression tests. For threaded splices used in drilled RD piles the robustness test means tightening test in laboratory.
Figure 1. EAD for steel pipe piles
Testing is done on site with piling rig. Usually drop hammer or hydraulic hammer is used, but also hydraulic ram can be used for smaller pile sizes. Test piles with splice are first driven to contact with bedrock surface. After contact has been reached, strain transducers are attached to pile to measure stress level in pile during testing. Usually PDA equipment is used to measure and store the data.
According to EAD the number of blows needs to be at least 200 with drop hammer or hydraulic hammer and 2000 with hydraulic ram. The stress level needs to be at least 0.5 x yield strength of the pile pipe.
In Finnish national requirement the number of blows is at least 500 with drop hammer or hydraulic hammer. If tested pile size is meant to be used also in most demanding piling works (Piling Work Class 3 – PTL3), the stress level needs to be at least 0.75 x yield strength of the pile pipe.
All SSAB’s piles are tested to meet more demanding requirements than given in EAD to fulfill Finnish national requirements for the most demanding piling works.
Figure 2. Impact blow tests for RRs220/12.5 pile size with 4 ton hydraulic hammer
Figure 3. Measured stress levels for RRs220/12.5 test pile number P1 during impact blow tests
Bending test is used for testing the bending resistance and bending stiffness of the pile splice. Bending test is done in laboratory according to EAD and some national guides.
Figure 4. Assembly drawing of a bending test (Finnish Piling Guide PO-2011)
Bending resistance of the pile with splice needs to be at least the same as bending resistance of similar pile without splice. The bending stiffness of the pile with splice needs to be at least 0.75 x bending stiffness of similar pile without splice in moment range 0.3 – 0.8 x M.
Figure 5. Bending test for RRs220/12.5 test pile number B220-3
Figure 6. Bending stiffness results for RRs220/12.5 pile, sample B220-R is a reference pile pipe
Tension test verifies installation capability of the splice. During installation pile faces also tension stresses and therefore also pile splice needs to withstand some amount of tension.
The requirement for the tension resistance is at least 0.15 x tension resistance of similar pile without splice.
Figure 7. Tension test for RRs220/12.5 test pile number T220-1
Compression test is not required if pile pipes to be spliced are supported on each other in the whole cross section area and pile splice fulfills the above mentioned requirements for robustness, bending and tension. Compression test is needed for example when testing threaded splices for RD and RDs piles.
Figure 8. Compression test for RD140/10 with threaded splice (KTH test report)
SSAB delivers last 2 100 m of DN1000 water mains to Hunstok-Akersvann during December 2016 - February 2017. SSAB’s delivery content for this project includes totally 15 km of coated DN1000 water pipes and fittings during 2014 - 2017. Delivery consists of 16 m long and 5 tons pipes and pipe fittings to the site. All pipes and pipe fittings are externally and internally coated. SSAB’s OV welded joint facilitates installation and allows 2.0 degree bends at joints. Since the OV welded joint is welded from the inside to make it tension resistant, it is suitable for diameters ≥DN 600 and pressures up to 20 bar.
Figure 1. SSAB’s OV welded joint is used in water lines to facilitate installation and to allow 1.5 – 3.0 degree bends at joints.
SSAB is able to produce and deliver by trucks coated pipes quickly and just in time taking into account any changes with time of delivery during the project.
The biggest challenge is to transport and move 16 m long and 5 tons heavy pipes to wet fields before installation within a very short time frame and in very variable winter conditions.
Figure 2. Heavy pipes are 16 m long and weighs 5 tons each
"We chose SSAB to supply the coated steel pipes and fittings because it provides good quality and fast and flexible delivery to the site by trucks“, says Einar Klavenes, Vesfold Vann, Project manager. Vestfold Vann IKS has been established 1968 and is owned together by 10 municipalities in Vestfold county in south part of Norway. The mission of Vesfolf Vann IKS is to offer the partners drinking water of good quality.
SSAB’s main partner is Brødrene Dahl AS and main contractor Arne Olav Lund AS.
Figure 3. Unloading of long and heavy pipes in Stokke, Norway
SSAB’s water mains offer a reliable and economically advantageous solution for water supply. SSAB's welded steel pipes can be used in water mains where the maximum operating pressure is usually 16 bar. Pipe fittings are delivered for diameters ≥ DN 400. The water mains and fittings are delivered flexibly according to the customers’ wishes. The long lifespan of steel pipes is ensured by an external polyethylene coating and an internal concrete or epoxy layer suitable for use with drinking water. There are also suitable inside coatings for sewage and rainwater. The various connection methods can be carried out by welding or with flanges, connectors or sealed sleeve joints. SSAB has long experience from large and demanding pipeline deliveries. Read more: SSAB's water mains
Region Skåne in Sweden is investing heavily on building a new future hospital in Malmö. RD® pile wall has been chosen as a retaining wall solution for parts of the project. Piling contractor is Skanska Sverige AB Grundläggning. RD pile wall was chosen as a solution due to minimum vibration as well as minimum noise and disturbance to the surroundings compared to other solutions. In total close to 10 km, 665 pieces of RM-RF interlocked RD320/12.5 piles (1030 tons) have been delivered for the project. Regular scheduled deliveries took place between June and October. First part of the RD pile wall was built for new hospital building with two levels of basements. Second part of the RD pile wall was built for the culvert F. Next spring there will be a need for one more RD pile wall for another culvert.
Figure 1. Close to 10 km of RM-RF interlocked RD320/12.5 piles have been delivered to Malmö hospital project between June and October.
Region Skåne is responsible for healthcare and public transport, business development, culture, infrastructure, social planning and environmental and climate-related issues in Skåne. During coming few years Region Skåne will have major investments on the hospital campus in Malmö. The goal is to have a modern hospital that is well prepared for future care. Malmö hospital area investments include two new health care buildings, a new service center and an expanded culvert system. Culvert system will reduce the number of transports in the hospital area. Culverts link healthcare buildings with the new service center and create more efficient transport flows of goods and waste. The work is expected to be completed by 2022.
Figure 2. Second part of the RD® pile wall is built for the culvert F.
Figure 3. Project is located in the city center of Malmö. Limited storage space requires well scheduled deliveries.
Three more RD pile walls have been built by Skanska in Sweden this autumn. In total 3.7 km, 234 pieces of RM-RF interlocked RD400/12.5 piles (505 ton) will be delivered to project Slussen in Stockholm. Deliveries for the project started in November. In Malmö a smaller RD pile wall of 208 tons have been installed in November. In total 1.9 km, 134 pieces of RM-RF interlocked RD320/12.5 piles have been delivered to the project Dalby. Earlier in the autumn Skanska installed RD pile wall for the project SCA Östrand Timrå. In total 2.1 km, 150 pieces of RM-RF interlocked piles were delivered in September.
SSAB launched new RRs220/10 pile size last spring to widen SSAB’s high-strength steel RRs® pile selection. This new pile size enabled cost-efficient alternative design solution for new hospital building project. New hospital will be part of Central Finland Health Care District (KSSHP), which is the largest non-university hospital district in Finland. The district is populated by 250 000 people. New hospital is built in Kukkumäki, Jyväskylä. Total area of the hospital is 100 000 brm2. Building project will continue until 2020 and total cost estimation is 398,5 million euros.
Figure 1. Central Finland Health Care District is building new hospital in Jyväskylä.
Original design of the project included significant amount of RR400/12.5 and RR320/12.5 piles. Those were replaced mostly by RRs220/10 due to material savings realized by stronger steel grade and better resistance-weight ratio. As shown in Figure 2, the material savings can be up to 20 % due to use of high-strength steel in piling. In addition to that the alternative solution enabled use of pile elements which resulted in time savings when splicing is easier and faster compared to splice welding. Also material waste is minimized when leftover piece can be utilized in next pile.
Figure 2. Comparison of relative design resistance [kN] vs. weight of pile pile [kg/m] ratios of different pile sizes.
Alternative solution with smaller diameter piles means also less displacement and disturbance of soil in relation to the load-bearing capacity of the pile. When comparing RRs220/10 and RR400/12.5 pile sizes, similar design resistance is achieved with clearly smaller soil displacement. Figure 3 shows relative soil displacement – resistance ratios for three different pile sizes.
Figure 3. Comparison of relative soil displacement [m3] vs. design resistance [kN] ratios of different pile sizes.
Total project delivery includes 18 000 meters of RRs220/10, 2 113 piles and 3 300 meters of RR170/10, 380 piles. Piling contractor is Kantolan Paalutus Oy. Piling work is realized in two phases; first phase is done during November-December including 60% of the piling and second phase will be done next year during March-April. During the first phase, pile deliveries have been reliable and accurate. Site manager Henri Laitila has been satisfied with the fluency of the deliveries. “Pile deliveries have been able to be synchronized with the progress of the piling so that there have been no need for big intermediate storages at the job site”, he says.
Figure 4. Pile deliveries and piling have been synchronized to avoid the need for intermediate stocks at the job site. Waste has been minimized by using pile elements.
Kantolan Paalutus Oy has two piling rigs at the job site. Piling has gone according to contractor’s expectations and time schedule. Pile lengths have corresponded quite accurately with the expected lengths based on soil investigation. Pile lengths have varied between 1.5 to 13.0 meters. Soil base is sandy and partly rocky, but it has not caused any problems like compaction.
Figure 5. Soil base is mainly sandy silt and partly rocky, but it has not caused any problems like compaction.
Turku University Hospital (TYKS) is building a massive new building, named T3 Hospital, on top of existing E18 freeway and a rail road. New building will have total area of 54 000 m2 in eight stories. Total budget for the project is 158 M€.
Figure 1. New building will rise on top of existing E18 freeway and a railroad, just next to T2 Hospital (photo: www.vsshp.fi).
Due to tight schedule of the project and demanding soil conditions, drilled RD piles were chosen for the project. Pile sizes RD800, RD600 and RD400 are used. RD800 piles are drilled three meters (4xD) and smaller ones 2 meters into the bedrock and grouted to the hole to ensure rigid connection. Piles are inclined and also tension anchors are used to take heavy accidental lateral and lifting loads.
Due to cold winters in Finland, a de-icing salt is often used for roads. This causes severe corrosion environment for steel piles. In TYKS T3 project RD800 piles are exposed to de-icing salt and the corrosion is taken care with 3-layer HDPE coating on piles. Additional to the coating, the resistance of the piles has been calculated with extra 2 mm corrosion allowance to wall thickness.
One of the most important things to ensure intact coating is careful handling of the piles at all stages of the transportation and installation. To ensure the coating is intact after installation three of the piles were lifted up after drilling. The coating of these test piles was checked visually and if necessary also with a holiday detector. “Two first test piles have shown no remarkable marks in the coating”, says Reino Heikinheimo, geotechnical designer from Ramboll Finland, and continues: “Only some small holes at the pile toe, where the clamps of the drill rig have grabbed to the pile pipe. These holes aren’t causing corrosion problems due to grouting of the pile toe to the bedrock. I think the reason, why the coating has remained intact, is very careful and skillful installation team”.
Before the start of the project Lemminkäinen, the contractor, thought coating would cause significant problems during installation. “We prepared for damages in the coating with training of repair and a big bunch of repair materials. Now we have installed 97 pcs of coated piles and we have used only handful of repair patches”, says Kai Jaakkola, drilling supervisor for Lemminkäinen. “Our installation team has learned more gentle way to handle piles. I think this helps us also in normal projects, because they are handling also un-coated piles with more care”.
Since the coating is a plastic material, the cutting can’t be done with a cutting torch. Too high temperature would set the coating on fire. The cutting of the piles has been done with plasma cutter, which produces significantly less heat.
Due to heavy lateral loads, there is a need to get a rigid connection between concrete foundation and the pile pipe. Therefore the coating is removed from top most part of the pile. This is done with the help of little heat.
External triple-layer coating is done according to DIN 30670 N-n (1991) standard. An epoxy film protects the pile against corrosion while a polyethylene film shields the epoxy film against damage. Third layer is an adhesion layer between epoxy and polyethylene film. Prior to coating the pile pipe is cleaned by sand blasting and the smoothness of the surface is checked.
Usual thicknesses vary from 2.2 mm (RR/RD400) to 3.0 mm (RR/RD1200). In severe conditions an increased thicknesses, +0.7 mm, are used. Maximum thickness available is 6.0 mm.
HDPE coating can be applied to SSAB’s large diameter piles (RR/RD400…RR/RD1200). The production line enables coating of 10…18 meter long pile pipes. Also longer piles are available with splice welding and a joint coating.
Storing and handling of the coated piles needs much more attention than uncoated piles. Clamps and other lifting equipment can easily leave marks to the coating. Wooden backings are required when pile pipes are stored at the site, and extra care needs to be paid to pebbles and stones. All sharp edges and jigs need to be removed from drilling rig.
If in spite of above the coating has damaged, it can be repaired. Damaged polyethylene can be repaired with special repair materials. When damaged area is small, also epoxy can be fixed. In larger damaged areas the damaged part needs to be removed.
Figure 2. RD800 piles are drilled and waiting for cutting. Inclination is due to heavy accidental loads.
Figure 3. Some of the piles were drilled from closed freeway lanes during night time.
Figure 4. Ready RD800 piles (cut, peeled, reinforced and concreted).
Figure 5. Small marks at the coating of extracted test pile number two (photo: Arto Heikkilä Ramboll CM Oy)
SSAB has finished the second phase of deliveries to Pasila Tripla, a massive billion-euro construction project near the city center of Helsinki in Finland. In the last newsletter SSAB’s extensive RD pile wall delivery of close to 4 200 tons of piles, totally 13 500 square meters, was presented. RD pile wall delivery started in May 2015 and after the installation was finished by mid November 2015 the deliveries continued with casing tubes for the anchoring until June 2016.
Figure 1. Southern part of the RD pile wall in August 2016 after excavation and anchoring.
After the installation of the RD pile wall and excavation it is now evident that it meets all the demands excellently. RD pile wall complies with tight tolerances of installation and water-proofing. Finished wall is fully waterproof. Installation deviations are minimal and within required tolerances – wall is extremely straight without any leaking.
SSAB´s pile deliveries and close and intensive co-operation with YIT has continued after RD pile wall installation from spring 2016. Next pile deliveries included smaller RD pile wall deliveries for shaft structures and pile deliveries for building foundations.
Figure 3. During summer 2016 SSAB delivered piles for building foundations. Delivery included RD1200/12.5 and RD1200/14.2 with steel grade S440J2H. Northern part of the RD pile wall in the background.
RD piles for building foundations and Pasila station
RD pile walls for shaft structures
Pipes for struts to support the excavations
Figure 4. Installation of RD piles for building foundations.
YIT’s massive construction project Pasila Tripla still lasts couple of years and the co-operation with SSAB continues.
Ust-Luga Port is the biggest and deepest port of the Baltic Sea, including the Baltic States and Finland.
The port developer, JSC Ust-Luga Company, was established in 1992 to construct Ust-Luga Commercial Sea Port with a capacity of 180 million tons of various cargo per year in the Baltic Sea, namely in Luga Bay of the Gulf of Finland.
In order to protect the port activities from the sea, a 1300 m long breakwater, made first shortly as a ballast embankment and mainly as a large diameter pile structure, was constructed in stages between 2013 and 2017.
The breakwater structure consists of 1020x12 mm pipe-pipe wall connected by LPB180 interlocks and 1220x12 mm inclined piles on the both sides of the wall. The upper parts of the piles have been coated in a facility close to the port. Piles were installed by using vibratory hammers and finally by impact hammers, if needed. After installation the upper parts of the piles were concreted and tied together by cast-in-place concrete superstructure.
Figure 1. Breakwater, made first shortly as a ballast embankment and mainly as a large diameter pile structure, was 1300 m long.
SSAB’s delivery scope to it’s client ThyssenKrupp Infrastructure GmbH has been consisting of 650 pcs of LPB180 interlocked piles 1020x12 mm, 5 600 ton (14 800 m in total) and 475 pcs of 1220x12 mm, 4 100 ton (11 400 m in total). The piles have been produced and the interlock welding has been taken place in SSAB’s Oulainen factory in Finland during 2014-2016. All piles for each stage have been loaded in dedicated vessels for delivery straight into Ust-Luga.
Figure 2. SSAB’s delivery scope has been consisting of 650 pcs of LPB180 interlocked piles 1020x12 mm, 5 600 ton and 475 pcs of 1220x12 mm, 4 100 ton.
The designed interlocked pipe-pipe wall structure requires that the individual pile elements will have strict out-of-roundness tolerances after welding. Thanks to the state-of-the-art interlock welding lines in Oulainen and long-term & extensive experience on interlock welding, the EN 1090 certified factory was able to meet the end-customer’s expectations.
“We chose SSAB because of the convenient location of the pipe production, short delivery time and good quality” explains Tatjana Detzel, Head of Department Export at TKBT.
SSAB's median barrier is an effective way of improving traffic safety. Median barriers are used on roads between opposing lanes to prevent collisions between vehicles. Kuu Ras Oy installed SSAB C210/130X4 median barriers to passing lane in Kypäräjärvi in September. SSAB’s delivery to highway VT23 included 1 860 m median barrier and 3 780 m side barriers.
Figure 1. Kuu Ras Oy installing SSAB’s median barriers in Kypäräjärvi passing line in September.
This was the first installation of SSAB C210/130X4 median barriers for Kuu Ras Oy. According to Kuu Ras Oy this median barrier is faster and easier to install than the previous model, Box beam. The connection is better and it includes fewer screws which makes it faster to install.
Figure 2. Highway VT23 is 517 km long from Pori to Joensuu. Kypäräjärvi passing line is situated 80 km before Joensuu. (photo: www.wikipedia.com)
SSAB C210/130X4 has replaced the old model of median barrier, Box beam. “The aim was to develop economical solution for customer. Cost efficient installation was one key driver. Number of components has been minimized. SSAB C210/130X4 has only 8 screws per splice when the previous model, Box beam, had 20 screws per splice. Also there are no special screws with limited availability required. Only 2 types of screws are needed, which also promotes easiness of installation”, says Arja Häihälä, Sales Manager in SSAB. “In addition to fast and easy installation, cost efficiency of the median barrier system has been improved by introducing high-strength steel grades”, she continues.
Figure 3. SSAB C210/130X4 median barrier enables cost-efficient installation.
SSAB’s median barrier is crash tested and compliant with the requirements of the standard EN13172. It has proven its durability in demanding environmental conditions. The high-strength median barrier meets the requirements of impact containment levels H1 and N2 and has been CE-approved.
Figure 4. SSAB safety barrier solutions include median barriers, side barriers and a selection of rails and posts.
Sales Manager, Safety barriers
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Underpinning was needed to prevent excessive settlement of historical buildings in Stockholm and Gothenburg. In Pyramiden, Stockholm, steel core piles were replaced by RD piles with threaded splicing. In Högvakten, Gothenburg, RR piles were used with two different techniques. Foundation contractor was Betongsprutnings AB BESAB in both underpinning cases.
Ten buildings established between 1898 and 1914 needed underpinning to prevent excessive settlement. End customer was Svenska Bostäder. Skanska Sverige AB was general contractor and Betongsprutnings AB BESAB was foundation contractor. Each building was underpinned using 50 - 300 drilled RD piles with threaded splicing and each pile needed to be between 20 m and 25 m long to reach the bedrock. Drilling of piles was done with water powered drilling.
Through the development of a custom made drop hammer, BESAB’s own design, the bearing capacity of the drilled RD piles could be measured even in the tightest of work spaces. This made it possible for BESAB, in agreement with the customer, to switch from steel core piles to RD piles. This change of piles led to savings between 10% - 20% for the project. The use of SSAB’s high strength steel piles in S550 grade contributed a lot to the savings.
Figure 1. Bearing capacity measured with PDA by using custom made drop hammer even in the tightest of work spaces.
SSAB’s delivery included RD170/10, RD170/12.5, and RDs170/10 piles with threaded splices. Length of pile elements varied between 1 - 1.5 m. Delivery was in total 1 159 m, 1 136 pile elements.
Figure 2. SSAB’s delivery included threaded RD piles and high strength steel RDs piles.
Four of Gothenburg’s oldest buildings in the city centre needed underpinning due to excessive settlement. Higab, a real estate company owned by the City of Gothenburg, ordered the underpinning from foundation contractor Betongsprutnings AB BESAB. Steel piles were delivered by SSAB. The underpinning used two different techniques. One technique was to core drill through the dry rubble, then drive RR piles on each side of the dry rubble and place a bearing beam on top of the driven RR piles which carries the weight of the building. All of the steel above ground was grouted for protection against corrosion. The other technique used was zig-zag piling. Holes were core drilled with a slight incline through the wall and stone foundation. Then RR piles were driven through the holes to the hard bearing layer and cut from the bottom level of the foundation. Finally the holes in foundation were filled with concrete.
Figure 3. Driving of RR pile.
SSAB’s delivery consisted of RR piles, RR90 and RR115/6.3, including rock shoes and bearing plates. Delivery was in total 1 258 piles, 36 000 m. Length of pile elements varied between 1-3 meters.
Figure 4. Control of splices.
City of Vantaa is building a new day care center to replace old one. New day care center is designed for 126 children. Energy efficiency and energy piles have big role in the building. The aim is to build nearly zero-energy day care center with advanced energy saving techniques.
Old day care center in Vaarala has suffered from traffic noise and particulate matter emission. It has also been found to be impractical and expensive to use. Therefore City of Vantaa has decided to build totally new day care center to better location nearby.
Figure 1. Illustration of new day care center (photo: www.vantaa.fi)
The project is a pilot project for new nearly zero-energy building concept of City of Vantaa. All new day care centers are to be built according to this new concept. It is also a pilot project for building information modeling (BIM). The building will have total area of 1500 m2 and estimated costs are 5.4 M€.
“In Finland there are no actual regulations for nearly zero-energy buildings. We set our own target to reduce the total energy consumption of the building to half of the regulations for new buildings”, says Energy Efficiency Specialist Marita Tamminen from Vantaa City Real Estate Centre. “Chosen solutions are based on careful cost and energy calculations. Naturally several different kinds of sensors are installed to verify the actualizing energy consumptions in the future.”
Solar energy and energy piles are utilized to reduce the need of energy. Solar energy is used for heating the water and also to charge heat energy through energy piles to ground during summer time. This charged thermal energy is then extracted from ground during the winter time to warm the building.
Solar energy panels for the project are supplied by Ruukki Construction. Ruukki has vast experience on low energy buildings and especially on energy piles. Heat collecting pipes, other pipelines and equipment for energy piles were designed and supplied by Uponor. Uponor has been involved in almost every energy pile projects in Finland.
Total amount of piles is 137 of which 54 are energy piles and equipped with heat collecting pipes. The minimum distance between energy piles is 3 meters. This is why it’s not economical to put heat collector pipes to every pile. Eight of the energy piles are not supporting the building, those piles are located to the floor area of the building, where distance between bearing piles is much larger than 3 meters.
Utilization of steel pipe piles to work as energy piles doesn’t mean big changes to pile and foundation structures. Structural and geotechnical resistances of piles remain the same. Only differences in piles are bearing plate with hole for heat collecting pipes and internal grouting. Internal grouting enables transition of heat energy from soil to collector pipes.
Figure 2. Driving of steel pipe piles, installation was done by Suomen Teräspaalutus Oy
Usually the length of energy pile should be at least 15 meters. Pile lengths in Vaarala day care center are approximately from 14 meters to 20 meters and the average length of piles is 18 meters. The length of each energy pile was sent to Uponor and heat collecting pipes were prefabricated at Uponor’s workshop to fit exactly to each pile. Also the energy calculations were updated to match actualized lengths of piles and heat collecting pipes.
Figure 3. Installation of heat collector pipes to piles
Heat collecting pipes are making a double loop inside the energy piles. With double loop there are four heat collector pipes inside the energy pile, but only two pipe heads per pile needs to be connected.
Figure 4. Due to double loop there are four heat collector pipes inside the energy piles
Figure 5. Heat collector pipes installed and ready for further connections
Main contractor of the project, Rakennus Future Oy, sees that energy piles cause no problem for other construction works. “Installation of heat collecting pipes needs only little extra scheduling, but that is not a problem”, says Kari Tasanko, site manager of the project, “Modern buildings contain so much technical installation, the increase for that is very small”.
SSAB’s steel pipe piles can be used to collect energy stored in the ground and bedrock. Traditionally, the heat collecting pipes of ground source heat solutions have been installed either in energy wells drilled into bedrock or horizontally in topsoil. If the building site requires piling, SSAB’s steel pipe piles allow installing the heat collecting pipes directly inside steel piles installed in the ground without extra excavation work or drilling of energy wells.
The energy pile system is especially suited for buildings that need both heating and cooling. In their case the system keeps the thermal balance of the soil suitable for energy production for decades.
Nearly all sizes of SSAB’s wide range of RR and RD piles can be used as energy piles. Driven RR piles and drilled RD piles can be used as energy piles as such without major changes.
The drilled eRD energy pile can be implemented, where necessary, also as a so-called hybrid pile solution where a deep energy well is drilled through a pile installed to bedrock.
eRR and eRD piles are installed just like RR and RD piles. The only new work phase is the installation of heat collecting pipes inside piles after piling.
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